This post is about Ioala’s parts of speech. So what is PARTS OF SPEECH? Let’s take a look at what Wikipedia says.

In traditional grammar, a part of speech or part-of-speech (abbreviated as POS or PoS) is a category of words (or, more generally, of lexical items) that have similar grammatical properties. Words that are assigned to the same part of speech generally display similar syntactic behavior—they play similar roles within the grammatical structure of sentences—and sometimes similar morphology in that they undergo inflection for similar properties.

So we know that part of speech is a grammatical classification of words in a language. Let’s take a look at what parts of speech Ioala has.

Subsandini(Noun) Nouns are the names of things, concrete things, abstract things, people, animals, phenomena, actions, properties, types, individuals, etc. In Ioala, except for the nouns specified otherwise, all other nouns are expressed in plural by adding o at the end. For example, Subsandinio.

Ediaktui(Adjective) Adjectives indicate nature, pros and cons, belonging, relationship, etc. There is nothing special about adjectives, but unlike English, adjectives in Ioala can both modify things and people. It is worth mentioning that possessive pronouns and ordinal numbers are also adjectives. For example, denno(my/mine) and aknedda(first). Of course, we also have to talk about the nominal usage of adjectives. When an adjective serves as a modifier of a noun, the noun is sometimes omitted. At this time, the adjective seems to accept the role of the noun alone. This is only possible when the context clearly indicates which noun should be omitted. For example, “Den iista Franko.”

Barantai(Qualifiers) Qualifiers are words that people put before nominal sentence components to define the identity of things. For example, “nuh Franko”. Under certain circumstances, nuh can be abbreviated to n’. For example, “n’lipas”. At the same time, the pronunciation of nuh changed from nʊh to . For example, the pronunciation of n’lipas is nʊliːpas instead of nʊh-liːpas. Nuh means talking about something known to the listener. When it comes to individual things (rather than species), nuh means that the speaker guesses that the listener knows the thing. At this time, nuh has the meaning of referring to someone. Not using nuh (or other qualifiers) means that the speaker guesses that the listener does not know this thing. The lack of a qualifier has the meaning of not referring to identity. For example, “Nuh roco birredu Johnny.” This time what we know is these roses belong to Johnny. “Roco birredu Johnny.” But now? We know that roses belong to Johnny, but what about those roses? No one knows. Usually, something is understood because it has been mentioned before. At this time, nuh means that people again mention something that has been said before. Not using nuh means that people introduce new people or things in their narration. For example, “Den birredu akne amok hvnami, nuh hvnami birredu dex plandio.” When it was first mentioned, the listener did not know which house it was talking about. Therefore, the speaker does not use nuh. In the second mention, the speaker added nuh to indicate that he was talking about the house just mentioned. If nuh is not used at this time, the listener must think that it is another house instead of the one just mentioned. In many cases, something is known because another thing mentioned earlier confirms its existence, or because the listener has the necessary knowledge about the world. So at this time, we can directly add nuh before the specific transaction. For example, “Denno birredu akne nia kaa, ahie nuh mod dona.” Although every car is equipped with an engine, we can understand that the mod in this sentence refers to the engine in the man’s car. Another example is “nuh erika”. The reason for adding unh directly to erika is because there is only one sun in the world. Things can also be understood by the listener directly seeing or noticing in other ways. For example, “Nuh ielin bius”. In many cases, nouns are often used to talk about types, which are used to express what something is like. There are various ways to do this: instead of nuh, use nuh, use singular or plural. People can often use each method arbitrarily or according to style.

The description of part of speech in this article borrowed part or all of the Esperanto grammar page of lernu!, thanks to the lernu! team and Mr. Bertilo Wennergren.

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